The concept of scale and scope refers to the expressive means of photography. Compliance with the scale necessary for the viewer to actually perceive the magnitude of the depicted object, which is usually administered in composition of the familiar objects to compare them with the main subject. The notion of scale as an element of artistic understanding associated with the concept of monumentality. To underline the scale, significance, the monumentality of the subject, you can apply a variety of compositional and expressive means – a contrast, some lighting, color, rhythm, etc., taking into account the laws of spectator perception. For example, a bright spot always seems more than equal to him in a dark area. The subject is located on a small area, among the smaller objects will seem larger than in the surrounding larger elements of composition. The scale of objects is completely dependent on the perspective.
Size, shape, form, color change as you change the position in space relative to the observer's eyes rights. Reducing the depicted objects will be proportional to their distance from the camera. This property is characterized by a straight line or linear perspective. With this perspective evinces parallel lines receding into the distance, come together at one point, and the faces of subjects, coinciding with the line of sight eyes look smaller than they really are. Respect to the distance between the object and the camera changed the color and tone.
Thus, the thickness of air layer determines the tonal perspective, in which the accuracy and clarity of the outlines disappear with increasing distance from the eye of the observer, decreases the color saturation, ie, in the distance, color loses its brightness and contrast of light and shadow softer, depth seems lighter than the foreground, Linear and tonal perspectives exist in nature and are impressed lens independently of the will of the photographer, however, Photographer has the opportunity to more clearly identify the term in the picture. For example, using a short-throw lens, you can greatly expand the space and, hence, increase the prospect, and, conversely, telephoto lens will limit the scope of the image, as it will shrink, reduce the term. Linear perspective is greatly increased if the photograph to show the vanishing point of lines receding into the distance. The illusion of greater depth space can be achieved through the development of tonal perspective, artificially creating an air mist and vague outlines of objects in the distance, location of objects in the photograph, in which one object partially covers another, also gives the impression of spatial depth. The same effect is achieved if the object is withdrawn abruptly, but the background blurry. The prospect of a photo – an important aesthetic category, because of her depends on the depth of field.